Indonesia

Country Profile:

Indonesia

>>>DOWNLOAD A PDF OF THIS COUNTRY PROFILE


Primary Image
Photo Caption:

Informal peace education activities are being conducted by Komunitas Cemara, a youth group in the city of Yogyakarta, for children living along the banks of the Code River, an impoverished urban area in Yogyakarta.


“Major Branches” of Peace Education Observed in Indonesia

(click for details/explanation)

  • Conflict Resolution Education
  • Democracy Education
  • Disarmament Education
  • Divided Societies
  • Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)
  • Gender
  • Global Citizenship Education (GCED)
  • Human Rights Education
  • Interfaith Peacebuilding
  • Interethnic / Intercultural Education
  • Nonviolence
  • Post-Conflict Peacebuilding
  • Restorative Practices
  • Social Emotional Learning (SEL)
  • Social Justice Education
  • Values & Ethics Education

Significant Approaches and Themes of Peace Education in Indonesia

(click for details/explanation)

  • Anti-Bullying Education
  • Conflict Prevention
  • Critical Thinking
  • Gender
  • Philosophy & Strategy of Nonviolence
  • Preventing Violent Extremism
  • Transitional Justice
  • Women’s Role in Peace & Security


Historical Context

Indonesia stands as the world’s largest archipelago, nestled between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, with Jakarta as its capital. Comprising 17,508 islands, it is a nation marked by significant cultural diversity, hosting 1,331 distinct ethnic groups and speaking 719 languages beyond its national language, Bahasa Indonesia. This rich cultural tapestry has been woven through centuries of interaction with foreign traders from China, India, and Europe, leading to the assimilation of a variety of religious beliefs including Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity into its cultural fabric. These interactions have shaped Indonesia’s societal norms and contributed to its complex cultural landscape.

The historical narrative of Indonesia is also deeply influenced by European colonization, with the Dutch establishing a significant presence in the archipelago in the early 16th century. The naming of Indonesia, derived from the Greek ‘nêsos’ for ‘islands’ and ‘India’, reflects its identity as the ‘Indian islands.’ The Dutch colonization brought economic prosperity to the Netherlands through the spice and cash crop trade but also sparked Indonesian nationalism. This desire for independence was notably expressed through the Youth Pledge of 1928, an important symbol of national unity and resistance against Dutch rule, eventually leading to Indonesia’s independence on August 17, 1945.

Since independence, Indonesia has seen seven presidential administrations, starting with Soekarno and leading up to the current presidency of Joko Widodo, who was re-elected in 2019. The leadership of these presidents has significantly influenced the nation’s trajectory, particularly in education, where Joko Widodo has launched initiatives like the Gerakan Revolusi Mental (Moral Revolution Movement) to address issues of corruption, intolerance, and bureaucracy. This highlights the role of leadership in shaping a positive national identity and fostering development within Indonesia’s educational sector and beyond.

Current Issues/Conflicts

Indonesia is currently grappling with a myriad of pressing issues and conflicts that span a wide range of societal, environmental, and political domains. Among the most concerning is the high incidence of direct violence in schools, involving not only students but also teachers and parents, affecting both educators and learners alike. Compounding these challenges are land disputes and the mismanagement of natural resources, which have ignited tensions and conflicts within communities. Additionally, the specters of radicalism and terrorism continue to pose significant threats to national security and social harmony. In response to these divisions, efforts towards interfaith peacebuilding have become increasingly vital, aiming to foster mutual understanding and respect among Indonesia’s diverse religious communities. Concurrently, the nation faces the critical task of pursuing sustainable development, a goal that necessitates balancing economic growth with environmental preservation and equitable resource distribution. Moreover, the pervasive issue of human rights violations remains a stubborn stain on Indonesia’s commitment to justice and equity, necessitating concerted efforts from all sectors of society to address these multifaceted challenges effectively.

Additional Resources for More Context


Peace Education Efforts

During President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s tenure in 2010, Indonesia’s education sector experienced a pivotal shift towards character education, underpinned by concerns over increasing social conflicts, ethnocentrism, corruption, and negative student behaviors. Recognizing the integral role of character, morals, and ethics in shaping a prosperous and civilized nation, Yudhoyono’s administration propelled the Ministry of Education to develop a curriculum that balanced knowledge, skills, and character development, inspired by the educational philosophy of Ki Hadjar Dewantara. This led to the introduction of Kurikulum 2013 (2013 Curriculum), emphasizing holistic child development across intellectual, physical, and ethical dimensions.

Character education in Indonesia, although not explicitly labeled as peace education, aligns with its principles according to theories by educators like Ian Harris. Harris (2004) posits that nurturing individuals with good character traits contributes to a more peaceful society, suggesting an inherent connection between character education and peace education despite their distinct definitions. Indonesia’s curriculum aims to foster moral, cultural, and ethical behaviors, highlighting eighteen character elements including religiosity, honesty, and tolerance. While most elements support peace education values, discussions around religiosity, patriotism, and nationalism raise debates regarding their potential to foster intolerance or animosity, underscoring the need for a balanced approach that promotes harmony and global peace ideals.

In response to ongoing challenges, President Joko Widodo enacted Regulation number 87/2017 to reinforce character education, tasking educational stakeholders with its holistic implementation. This was followed by guidelines on the role of teachers in nurturing character traits among students. The establishment of the Profil Pelajar Pancasila (Pancasila Student Profile) program in 2020 further defines the Indonesian student’s identity in line with Pancasila values, aiming to produce lifelong learners with global competencies and behaviors reflective of Pancasila’s principles. Pancasila is the foundational philosophical theory of the Indonesian state, encompassing five principles that form the ideological basis of the nation, which are belief in the one and only God, just and civilized humanity, the unity of Indonesia, democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives, and social justice for all of the people of Indonesia. These initiatives indicate Indonesia’s commitment to integrating peace and character education within its national curriculum, striving for an education system that not only imparts knowledge but also molds students into morally upright and globally-minded citizens.


Legislative & Policy Initiatives

  • Aceh Qanun number 5 of 2008 on the Implementation of Education.
  • Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia number 21 of 2015 on the Movement for Character Cultivation in Schools.
  • Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia number 82 of 2015 on the Prevention and Handling of Acts of Violence in Educational Units.
  • Presidential Instruction number 12 of 2016 on the National Movement of Mental Revolution.
  • Presidential Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia number 87 of 2017 on Strengthening Character Education.
  • Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia number 20 of 2018 on Strengthening Character Education in Formal Educational Units.
  • Presidential Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia number 101 of 2022 on the National Strategy for the Elimination of Violence Against Children.
  • Circular Letter number 17 Of 2023 on the Implementation of Concrete Actions for the National Movement of Mental Revolution.
  • Regulation of the Minister of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology number 48 of 2023 on Appropriate Accommodations for Students with Disabilities in Formal Early Childhood Education Units, Basic Education, Secondary Education, and Higher Education.
  • Regulation of the Minister Of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia number 46 of 2023 on the Prevention and Handling of Violence in Educational Units.
  • Decision of the Secretary General of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia number 49/M/2023 on Technical Guidelines for the Procedures for the Prevention and Handling of Violence in Educational Units.

Policy/Legislation

(click for details)

  • Supportive

Teacher Training

(click for details)

  • Optional


SDG Indicator 4.7.1 Data / Analysis

(click for details)

There is no data for this indicator.


Secondary Image
Photo Caption:

Women in East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia, are participating in training sessions to learn how to make finger puppets and tell stories. These skills are expected to equip mothers with the ability to share tales of peace with their children. This initiative is carried out by the Centre for Security and Peace Studies at Universitas Gadjah Mada with support from the Japanese Embassy.


Peace Education Organizations, Models & Projects in Indonesia


News on Peace Education in Indonesia

Access the comprehensive archive of news articles related to this country on the Global Campaign for Peace Education website. For a more customizable search, please visit the Global Campaign for Peace Education Clearinghouse.

In Bahasa Indonesia:

In English:


Research on Peace Education in Indonesia

Access the comprehensive archive of research articles related to this country on the Global Campaign for Peace Education website. For a more customizable search, please visit the Global Campaign for Peace Education Clearinghouse.

  • Ahmad Baedowi, Khairil Azhar, Sarlivanti, Sansrisna, Satia P. Zen, & Victor Yasadhana. (2015). Manajemen sekolah efektif: Pengalaman Sekolah Sukma Bangsa. PT Pustaka Alvabet.
  • Ahmad Jaelani & Nova Asvio. (2019). Evaluasi program pendidikan karakter di sekolah dasar. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Program Pascasarjana Universitas PGRI Palembang, p. 75-86.
  • Asna Husin. (2009). Educating for Islamic pluralism: Lessons from Indonesia. Islam and Civilisational Renewal, 1(1), p. 121-142. DOI: 10.52282/icr.v1i1.16
  • Ayami Nakaya. (2018). Overcoming ethnic conflict through multicultural education: The case of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. International Journal of Multicultural Education, 20(1), p. 118-137. DOI: 10.18251/ijme.v20i1.1549
  • Carolyn Ashton. (2002). Evaluation report: Program Pendidikan Damai. Jakarta: UNICEF and Program Pendidikan Damai.
  • Dana Kristiawan & Michelle Picard. (2021). A Transnational Peace-Education Framework of EFL Material Development for the Islamic School Context in Indonesia. In Anwar Ahmed & Osman Barnawi (Eds.). Mobility of Knowledge, Practice and Pedagogy in TESOL Teacher Education: Implications for Transnational Contexts, 213-238. Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-64140-5_11
  • Dana Kristiawan, Carol Carter, & Michelle Picard (2022). Reframing Readers Theatre for teaching EFL: infusing values for peace and conflict prevention for teacher professional development in Indonesian Islamic schools’ settings, Research in Drama Education: The Journal of Applied Theatre and Performance, DOI: 10.1080/13569783.2022.2147816
  • Dana Yudha Kristiawan. (2022). English Language Education and Peace Education in Indonesia: A Framework of Materials Development for Pesantren (Doctoral dissertation, University of Newcastle, Australia).
  • Diana Wulandari & Mukhamad Murdiono. (2018). Peace values on Pancasila and civic education textbooks in senior high school. In Annual Civic Education Conference (ACEC 2018). Atlantis Press.
  • Djoko Adi Walujo. (2017). Reposisi guru dalam peradaban sekolah: Internalisasi pendidikan karakter dan kompetensi guru di Indonesia. Sosiohumanika, 10(2), p. 151-164.
  • Dody Wibowo. (2020). The role of school culture in teacher professional development for peace education: The case of three schools in post-conflict Aceh, Indonesia (Doctoral dissertation, University of Otago, New Zealand).
  • Dody Wibowo (2021). The role of school culture in teacher professional development for peace education: the case of Sukma Bangsa School Pidie in post-conflict Aceh, Indonesia, Journal of Peace Education, DOI: 10.1080/17400201.2021.2015573
  • Dody Wibowo. (2022). Supporting teachers to teach peace: A case study of a school in Aceh. In M. Sukmajati (Ed.), Education, conflict histories and social cohesion-building in Indonesia (315-347).  PolGov.
  • Dody Wibowo. (2022). Mendukung Guru untuk Mempelajari Perdamaian: Studi Awal di Sekolah Sukma Bangsa Sigi, Sulawesi Tengah. Sukma: Jurnal Pendidikan, 6(2), 181-207. DOI: 10.32533/06204.2022
  • Dody Wibowo, Mahyudin, & Susan Sovia. (2024). Nurturing Participation in Teachers: The Case of Teachers in Sukma Bangsa Schools, Aceh, Indonesia. In Mary John O’Hair, Philip A. Woods, & H. Dan O’Hair (Eds.). Communication and Education: Promoting Peace and Democracy in Times of Crisis and Conflict, 236-253. Wiley.
  • Eni Zulaiha & Ibrahim Syuaib. (2023). Model Pengajaran Perdamaian Berbasis Al-Qur’an. Gunung Djati Publishing.
  • Faryaal Zaman. (2016). Future teachers as peace builders in Banda Aceh, Indonesia (Master thesis, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands).
  • Handoyo Puji Widodo. (2018). A critical micro-semiotic analysis of values depicted in the Indonesian Ministry of National Education-endorsed secondary school English textbook. In Handoyo Puji Widodo, Marianne Rachel Perfecto, Le Van Canh, & Adcharawan Buripakdi (Eds.). Situating moral and cultural values in ELT materials: The Southeast Asian context, p. 131-152. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
  • Ilfiandra, Nadhirah N. A., & Adiputra S. (2023). The Peace Education Model in Developing a Peaceful Classroom Climate: Lesson-learned from Indonesia. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2023, 25-35, DOI: 10.47750/pegegog.13.04.04
  • Kristi Wardani. (2010). Peran guru dalam pendidikan karakter menurut konsep pendidikan Ki Hadjar Dewantara. Proceeding of the 4th International Conference on Teacher Education; Join Conference UPI &UPSI, p. 8-10.
  • Muhammad Muhyi. (2012). Pendidikan karakter, motivasi dan profesionalisme guru pendidikan jasmani olahraga dan kesehatan. Wahana, 58(1), p. 35-41. DOI: 10.36456/wahana.v58i1.1331
  • Mohamad Saripudin, Amirul Hazmi Hamdan, & Nur Asiah. (2023). Indonesian Muslim Students’ Perception on the Concept of Peace, Characteristics of Peaceful People, and Non-Peaceful Experiences in Madrasah Aliyah. Muslim Education Review, 2(1), 42-64. DOI: 10.56529/mer.v2i1.162
  • Pamela Baxter, & Dody Wibowo. (2010). KAP study for the way forward in peace education in Aceh. Banda Aceh: UNICEF.
  • Rizal Panggabean. (2017). Institusionalisasi Manajemen Konflik Berbasis Sekolah. Sukma: Jurnal Pendidikan, 1(1), p. 197-218. DOI: 10.32533/01107.2017
  • Rizal Panggabean, Ahmad Baedowi, Victor Yasadhana, Sahlan Hanafiah, & Titik Firawati. (2015). Manajemen konflik berbasis sekolah: Dari Sekolah Sukma Bangsa untuk Indonesia. PT Pustaka Alvabet.
  • Suadi Zainal, Saifuddin Yunus, & Fadli Jalil. (2019). Post-conflict peace education in the public schools of East Aceh, Indonesia. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 9(5), p. 325-337.
  • Yayasan Pemantau Hak Anak (YPHA). (2008). Kertas posisi: Urgensi pengembangan pendidikan damai berbasis perlindungan dan pemenuhan hak-hak anak. Memunculkan anak sebagai aktor perdamaian: Upaya memutus siklus konflik secara transformatif. Yayasan Pemantau Hak Anak.
  • Wening Udasmoro & Arifah Rahmawati. (2019). Gender and Peacebuilding: Agency and Strategy from The Grass Root. Yogyakarta: FIB UGM.


Where to Study Peace Education in Indonesia

Visit the Global Campaign for Peace Education Global Directory for where to study peace education in this country and around the world.


Third Image
Photo Caption:

Several classroom activities related to peace education taught in the Department of International Relations and the Master’s Program in Peace and Conflict Resolution at Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia, are designed to be engaging and creative, encouraging students to connect with and gain a deeper understanding of issues in peace. These activities are crafted to foster interactive learning, critical thinking, and a profound appreciation of peace dynamics.


Last Updated

This country profile was last updates on: June 11, 2024

Cite this Article

Fahry, M. & Wibowo, D.  (2024*).  Indonesia.  In Jenkins, T., & Segal de la Garza, M. (Eds.), Mapping Peace Educationhttps://map.peace-ed-campaign.org/country-map/entry/479/ (*Year should match “last updated” date above)


Country Expert #1

Dody Wibowo PhD

Dody Wibowo is a peace education specialist with over 20 years of experience, currently lecturing and heading Quality Assurance for the Peace and Conflict Resolution Master’s program at Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. He also serves as the Director of Advocacy and Community Empowerment at Sukma Foundation, focusing on peace education integration. Dody holds a PhD from the University of Otago, New Zealand, specializing in factors enhancing teachers’ peace education delivery. His work spans collaboration with organizations like Peace Brigades International, Save the Children, and UNICEF Indonesia, contributing significantly to peacebuilding efforts.

Country Expert #2

Muhammad Fahry

Muhammad Fahry, a peace advocate from Aceh, holds a Master’s degree in Peace and Conflict Resolution from Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. He is employed by a non-governmental organization that concentrates on preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE), youth, peace and security, peacebuilding, environmental conservation, women’s empowerment, capacity building, and transitional justice.


Scroll to Top